Papers in this symposium include updates on the research carried out on these sites, information on the commercial distribution of the Manila Galleon trade, ceramics methodological issues regarding the sites, among other topics.
The Beeswax Wreck Project is an all-volunteer, non-profit effort to identify and locate a proto-historic wreck locally known as the Beeswax Wreck of Nehalem, Oregon, USA.
This symposium presents archaeological works related to the three known Manila Galleons sunk in the coast of the American continent as well as other sites related to the route and the products that it carried.
It seeks to bring together different researchers from these sites, to discuss, converse and interact in order to further the topic of Manila Galleon Archaeology, contributing ultimately to each individual site through the experience of others.
Anthony Mc Farlane casts his net widely to cover the colonisation by the British of not only the north American mainland but also the islands in the Caribbean and what is now the state of Guyana.
Aiming at synthesising the findings of the most recent historical research, he wisely chooses a chronological approach, while simultaneously analysing the structure of American colonial society and the Anglo-American economy.
The assessment is timely and crucial: the world's oceans are threatened by many anthropogenic stressors, from pollutants, nutrient runoff and overfishing to warming, deoxygenation and acidification Variables such as temperature, salinity and chlorophyll levels are monitored globally by satellites, water-column-profiling floats and moored sensor arrays.
The British colonists, in contrast, treated the natives as savages and 'an obstacle to immigration'.
Spain ruled her colonies directly through a centralised bureaucracy, while Britain 'formulated no colonial policy nor political framework to contain the colonies', until the middle of the seventeenth century and even then rode them on a very loose rein.
Ecological monitoring of marine systems, by contrast, is woefully inadequate and has been too long dismissed as too hard and too costly.
As a result, the phytoplankton, zooplankton and micronekton (krill and small fish) that comprise the bulk of ocean ecosystems are examined on an ad hoc basis, rather than systematically.
what options are taxonomists left with for distinguishing one species from another?